Carrick Institute

🤓We are here to support your growth during this time! Save 20% off an online, self-paced learning module. Use Code “StudyTime” at checkout. 🤓

Reading List

801 / 901: Neuron Theory & Receptor Activation

The main objective of this module is to educate the participants on the importance of the study of neurology as it pertains to the practice of chiropractic, as well as to understand the clinical application of neuron theory as it relates to environmental potentials and their effects on the central nervous system. The basic aspects of neuroscience as it pertains to neuron theory will be the center of discussion as to provide a solid foundation for the debutante learner to understand more complex neurological applications.

Key Concepts

  1. Brain Hemisphericity and its implications on the art and science of chiropractic science.
  2. Clinical disorders affecting:
    1. Neuronal Structure
    2. Electrical signaling properties
      1. Action potentials
      2. Passive electrical membrane properties (Central Integrative State)
  3. Effects of decreased environmental potentiation on:
    1. Passive and active electrical membrane properties.
    2. Mitochondrial Encephalopathies
  4. Relationship of the benign physiological blind spot to cortical hemisphericity and its clinical implications.

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 2: Nerve Cells, Neural Circuitry, and Behavior (Kandel, Barres, Hudspeth)
  • Chapter 4: The Cells of the Nervous System (Schwartz, Barres, Goldman)
  • Chapter 5: Ion Channels (Siegelbaum, Koester)
  • Chapter 6: Membrane Potential and the Passive Electrical Properties of the Neuron (Siegelbaum, Koester)
  • Chapter 7: Propagated Signaling: The Action Potential (Siegelbaum, Koester)
  • Chapter 15: The Organization of the Central Nervous System (Amaral, Strick)
  • Chapter 56. Experience and the Refinement of Synaptic Connections (Jessell, Sanes)

 

802 and 902: Neuromuscular Applications

The main objective of this module is to discuss and develop a proficient understanding of the relationship between brain activity and muscle tone. Further emphasis will be placed on the structure and function of the motor system in relationship to receptor activation. The relationship between brain/muscle spindle sensitivity/gain and muscle tone will be explored. Methodology concerning brain-based activation of the neuromuscular system will be presented. Pathological neuronal processes will be discussed in relationship to receptor pathology of muscle spindle and joint mechanoreceptor origin. The relationship between chiropractic modalities and the treatment of receptor-based pathologies will be discussed.

Key Concepts

  1. Muscle spindle physiology and central spindle afferent projections
  2. Joint mechanoreceptor properties and their central projections.
  3. Descending cortical projections and their influences on muscle spindle sensitivity/gain characteristics.
  4. Muscle weakness patterns associated with cortical hemisphericity:
    1. Pyramidal weakness

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 8: Overview of Synaptic Transmission (Siegelbaum, Kandel)
  • Chapter 9: Signaling at the Nerve Muscle Synapse:Directly Gated Transmission (Siegelbaum, Kandel)
  • Chapter 10: Synaptic Integration in the Central Nervous System (Siegelbaum, Kandel, Yuste)
  • Chapter 11: Modulation of Synaptic Transmission: Second Messengers (Clapham, Siegelbaum, Schwartz)
  • Chapter 12: Transmitter Release (Siegelbaum, Kandel, Sudhof)
  • Chapter 34: The Motor Unit and Muscle Action (Enoka, Pearson)
  • Chapter 35: Spinal Reflexes (Pearson, Gordon)
  • Chapter 45: The Sensory, Motor, and Reflex Functions of the Brain Stem (Saper, Lumsden, Richerson)

 

803 / 903: Peripheral Nervous System

The main objective of this module is to review the anatomical and neurophysiological structure of the peripheral nervous system and its clinical implications. Emphasis will be placed on the influences of cortical hemisphericity on the onset and propagation of disorders affecting the PNS. Diagnostic protocols assessing central cortical influences will be introduced. Chiropractic  applications in the treatment of peripheral nerve lesions will be discussed in detail.

Key Concepts

  1. Clinical anatomy and neurophysiology of PNS.
  2. Physiological reaction of peripheral nerves to compression.
  3. Predisposing clinical factors that increase the susceptibility of nerves to compressive and noncompressive pathologies.
  4. The relationship of cortical hemisphericity to the development, propagation and maintenance of various peripheral nerve compressive lesions.
  5. The use of 1b afferent stretches in the treatment of peripheral lesions and other manipulative and non-manipulative procedures.

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 4. The Cells of the Nervous System (Schwartz, Barres, Goldman)
  • Chapter 14: Diseases of Nerve and the Motor Unit (Brown, Cannon, Rowland)

Neurological Differential Diagnosis, 2nd Edition, John Patten, Springer 1996.

  • Chapter 16: Diagnosis of Cervical Root and Peripheral Nerve Lesions Affecting the Arm
  • Chapter 17: Nerve Root and Peripheral Nerve Lesions Affecting the Leg
  • Chapter 19: Peripheral Neuropathy & Diseases Affecting the Lower Motor Neuron

 

804 / 904: Spinal Cord

The main objective of this module is to review the functional organization of the spinal cord as to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of various spinal cord lesions. Structured methodology will be presented to aid the practitioner in differentiating various clinical syndromes directly or indirectly involving the spinal cord. Emphasis will be placed on the application of chiropractic modalities in the treatment of various spinal cord disorders.

Key Concepts

  1. Clinical anatomy and neurophysiology of the spinal cord.
  2. Neurophysiological mechanisms associated with spinal cord lesions.
  3. Cortical hemisphericity and its influences on the onset and propagation of various spinal cord pathologies.
  4. Motor, reflex and sensory changes associated with the following spinal cord syndromes:
    1. Anterior cord syndrome
    2. Posterior cord syndrome
    3. Lat cord syndromes: both dorsal-lateral and ventral-lateral
    4. Neurological examination techniques used to diagnose lesions of the spinal cord.

Reading List:

Nolte’s The Human Brain: An Introduction to its Functional Anatomy, Todd Vanderah, Douglas Gould, 2015, elsevier

  • Chapter 10: Spinal Cord

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 21: Sensory Coding (Gardner, Johnson)
  • Chapter 22: The Somatosensory System: Receptors and Central Pathways (Gardner, Johnson)
  • Chapter 23: Touch (Gardner, Johnson)
  • Chapter 35. Spinal Reflexes (Pearson, Gordon)

Neurological Differential Diagnosis, 2nd Edition, John Patten, Springer 1996.

  • Chapter 13: The Anatomy, Physiology & Clinical Features of Spinal Cord Disease
  • Chapter 14: Metabolic Infective & Vascular Disorders of the Spinal Cord
  • Chapter 15: The Spinal Cord In Relation to the Vertebral Column

 

805 / 905 – Reflexogenic Systems

The main objective of this module is to review the clinical anatomy and physiology of the reflexogenic systems governing muscle tone and posture. Emphasis will be placed on the central brain influences on various reflexogenic systems in the etiology of musculoskeletal disorders ranging from chronic tendonitis to acute sprain strain injuries. Clinical applications will we emphasized using changes in various reflexogenic systems in the treatment of musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal pathologies.

Key Concepts

  1. DTR’s and their relationship to neurological and non-neurological disorders.
  2. Descending reticulospinal integration on DTR’s through Renshaw Cell integration.
  3. Clinical implications of vestibulo ocular reflexes.
  4. Cortical and Cerebellar influences on posture.
  5. Relationship of ocular convergence and pupillary light reflexes to cortical hemisphericity.

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 25: The Constructive Nature of Visual Processing (Gilbert)
  • Chapter 33: The Organization and Planning of Movement (Wolpert, Pearson, Ghez)
  • Chapter 35: Spinal Reflexes (Pearson, Gordon)
  • Chapter 41: Posture (MacPherson, Horack)

Nolte’s The Human Brain: An Introduction to its Functional Anatomy, Todd Vanderah, and Douglas Gould, 2015, elsevier

  • Chapter 11: Organization of the Brain Stem
  • Chapter 15: Atlas of the Human Brainstem

Neurological Differential Diagnosis, 2nd Edition, John Patten, Springer 1996.

  • Chapter 2: The Pupils & Their Reactions
  • Chapter 8: The Cerebral Hemispheres: Lobes of the Brain, page 109: Reflex Responses
  • Chapter 12: The Extrapyramidal System, page 208: Reflex Changes in Cerebellar Disease
  • Chapter 14: Disorders of the Spinal Cord, page 218: Abdominal Reflexes
  • Chapter 18: Peripheral Nerve Lesions Affecting the Leg, page 302: The Cremasteric Reflex

 

806 / 906 – Autonomic Nervous System

The main objective of this module is to review the clinical anatomy and neurophysiological structure of the autonomic nervous system. Emphasis will be placed on the central brain influences on autonomic function as it relates to disease states affecting the autonomic nervous system. Further emphasis will be placed on the structure and function of the ANS in relationship to respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary function and pathology. Autonomic concomitants associated with central and peripheral lesions will be reviewed. Clinical methodology involving diagnosis and treatment of neurological dysfunction of the ANS will be reviewed.

Key Concepts

  1. Clinical anatomical and physiological similarities and differences between the parasympathetic & sympathetic nervous systems
  2. Autonomic regulation of heart rate and rhythm.
  3. VA ratio testing, bilateral blood pressure testing, palatal elevation testing and baroreceptor reflex testing as indicators for central mechanisms influencing clinical autonomic syndromes.
  4. Autonomic dysfunction and its relationship to pain.
  5. Chiropractic applications in the treatment of RSDS, Tachycardia, arrhythmias and bladder dysfunction.

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 47: The Autonomic Motor System and the Hypothalamus (Horn, Swanson)

Nolte’s The Human Brain: An Introduction to its Functional Anatomy,  Todd Vanderah, and Douglas Gould, 2015, elsevier

  • Chapter 15:  Atlas of the Human Brainstem

DeMyer’s The Neurologic Examination: A Programmed Text, Sixth Edition, Jose Biller, Gregory Gruener, Paul Brazis, 2011, McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

  • Chapter 6: Examination of the Motor Cranial Nerves V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII

 

807 / 907 – Cerebellar Cortices

The main objective of this module is to review the clinical anatomy and physiology of the cerebellum as it pertains to the pathogenesis of various cerebellar based movement and postural alterations. Emphasis will be placed on the review of the major afferent and efferent projections of the cerebellum. Clinical syndromes associated with specific lesions of the cerebellar cortex and its afferent/efferent projections will be reviewed with an emphasis on diagnostic and chiropractic treatment modalities.

Key Concepts

  1. Differentiation of cerebellar lesions into flocular, anterior and posterior lobes syndromes
  2. Clinical application of feedforward, efferent copy and feedback systems
  3. Diagnostic protocols used to differentiate between cortically based and cerebellar based ataxic movements.
  4. Chiropractic based applications for the treatment of:
    1. Ataxia
    2. Spinocerebellar degeneration
    3. Dizziness
    4. Vertigo

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 42: The Cerebellum (Lisberger, Thach)

Nolte’s The Human Brain: An Introduction to its Functional Anatomy, Todd Vanderah, and Douglas Gould, 2015, elsevier

  • Chapter 20:  Cerebellum

DeMyer’s The Neurologic Examination: A Programmed Text, Sixth Edition, Jose Biller, Gregory Gruener, Paul Brazis, 2011, McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

  • Chapter 8: Examination For Cerebellar Dysfunction

Neurological Differential Diagnosis, 2nd Edition, John Patten, Springer 1996.

  • Chapter 12: The Extrapyramidal System & The Cerebellum

 

808 / 908 – The Brain & Its Environment

The main objective of this module is to review the clinical anatomy of the brain and its supportive tissues. Emphasis will be placed of the clinical importance of understanding the dependency of the brain on environmental evoked potentials. Information will be reviewed pertaining to the internal and supportive structures of the brain with emphasis placed on the major afferent and efferent projections. Lesions of the afferent system, supportive structures of brain and the clinical methodology used in determining brain vascular integrity will be discussed. Applications specific to brain based treatments will also be discussed

Key Concepts

  1. General clinical neuroanatomy of the brain and its supportive tissue including the vasculature, meningeal and ventricular systems.
  2. Clinical syndromes involving pathology of the ventricular, meningeal and vascular systems of the brain.
  3. Relationship of brain development, maturation and aging to joint mechanoreceptor and muscle spindle activation.
  4. Seizure disorders and their relationship to cortical hemisphericity.
  5. Stroke prevention and the chiropractic model.

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 15: The Organization of the Central Nervous System (Amaral, Strick)
  • Chapter 50: Seizures and Epilepsy (Westbrook)
  • Chapter 52: Patterning the Nervous System (Jessell, Sanes)
  • Chapter 53: Differentiation and Survival of Nerve Cells(Jessell, Sanes)
  • Chapter 54: The Growth and Guidance of Axons (Sanes, Jessell)
  • Chapter 55: Formation and Elimination of Synapses (Sanes, Jessell)

 

Nolte’s The Human Brain: An Introduction to its Functional Anatomy, Todd Vanderah, and Douglas Gould, 2015, elsevier

  • Chapter 4: Meningeal Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord.
  • Chapter 5: Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid.
  • Chapter 6: Blood Supply to the Brain.

Neurological Differential Diagnosis, 2nd Edition, John Patten, Springer 1996.

  • Chapter 9: The Cerebral Hemispheres: Vascular Disease

 

809 / 909 – Cranial Nerves

The main objective of this module is to review the clinical anatomy and neurophysiology of the cranial nerves. Emphasis will be placed on the detailed review of the structure and function of the cranial nerves and the clinical syndromes associated with lesions affecting them. Further emphasis will be placed on discussing central mediating brain mechanisms on the onset and propagation of lesions involving the cranial nerves.

Key Concepts

  1. Clinical anatomy of the cranial nerves.
  2. Clinical syndromes commonly affecting the cranial nerves.
  3. Diagnostic protocols for determining brain hemisphericity and its influences associated with cranial nerve pathology.
  4. Diagnostic and chiropractic management considerations.

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 45: The Sensory, Motor, and Reflex Functions of the Brain Stem (Saper, Lumsden, Richerson)
  • Appendix C: Circulation of the Brain (Brust)

Nolte’s The Human Brain: An Introduction to its Functional Anatomy,  Todd Vanderah, and Douglas Gould, 2015, elsevier

  • Chapter 12: Cranial Nerves and Their Nuclei.

Neurological Differential Diagnosis, 2nd Edition, John Patten, Springer 1996.

  • Chapter 3: Vision, The Visual Fields & The Olfactory Nerve.
  • Chapter 5: The 3rd, 4th & 6th Cranial Nerves.
  • Chapter 6: The Cerebellopontine Angle & Jugular Foramen.

DeMyer’s The Neurologic Examination: A Programmed Text, Sixth Edition, Jose Biller, Gregory Gruener, Paul Brazis, 2011, McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing.

  • Chapter 6: Examination of the Motor Cranial Nerves V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII
  • Chapter 9: Examination of the Special Senses.

 

810 / 910 – Lobes of the Brain

The main objective of this module is review the clinical anatomy and neurophysiology of the lobes of the brain. Emphasis will be placed on describing the localized function of each particular lobe and the clinical syndromes secondary to various lesion mechanisms. Clinical protocols used in diagnosing lobular syndromes will be discussed. Therapeutic applications specific to each lobe will also be discussed.

Key Concepts

  1. Clinical anatomy, physiology and pathological syndromes of following cortical lobes:
    1. Frontal.
    2. Parietal.
    3. Occipital.
    4. Temporal.
    5. Limbic.
  2. Diagnostic protocols used in localizing specific lobular lesions.
  3. Demonstration of chiropractic techniques used in the treatment of lobular specific lesions of the brain.

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 25: The Constructive Nature of Visual Processing (Gilbert)
  • Chapter 30: The Inner Ear (Hudspeth)
  • Chapter 31: The Auditory Central Nervous System (Oertel, Doupe)
  • Chapter 32: Smell and Taste: The Chemical Senses (Buck, Bargmann)
  • Chapter 33: The Organization and Planning of Movement (Wolpert, Pearson, Ghez)
  • Chapter 37: Voluntary Movement: The Primary Motor Cortex (Kalaska, Rizzolatti)
  • Chapter 38: Voluntary Movement: The Parietal and Premotor Cortex (Rizzolatti, Kalaska)

Nolte’s The Human Brain: An Introduction to its Functional Anatomy,  Todd Vanderah, and Douglas Gould, 2015, elsevier

  • Chapter 22: Cerebral Cortex.

Neurological Differential Diagnosis, 2nd Edition, John Patten, Springer 1996.

  • Chapter 8: The Cerebral Hemispheres Lobes of the Brain.

 

811 / 911 – Neurological Diagnosis

The main objective of this module is to integrate the current understanding of neurological function in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the human nervous system. Emphasis will be placed on the neurological influences of multiple organ systems as it relates to neurological disease. The interpretation of information obtained from the physical examination will be reviewed as to ascertain the longitudinal level of the lesion as well as to provide the examiner with information for the application of treatment modalities specific to the individual’s neurological dysfunction. An introduction to Optokinetic mechanisms as a method to ascertain central lesions will also be discussed.

Key Concepts

  1. Understanding the significance of diagnosing the Longitudinal Level of the Lesion (LLL) as it relates to the treatment of neurological disease.
  2. Physical exam procedures utilized in the diagnosis of the LLL.
  3. Treatment and management considerations of the LLL.
  4. Optokinetic mechanisms and their relationship to central dysfunction.

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 25: The Constructive Nature of Visual Processing (Gilbert)
  • Chapter 39: The Control of Gaze(Goldberg)
  • Chapter 40: The Vestibular System (Goldberg, Hudspeth)

Nolte’s The Human Brain: An Introduction to its Functional Anatomy 7th Edition,  Todd Vanderah, and Douglas Gould, 2015, elsevier

  • Chapter 22: Cerebral Cortex.

Neurological Differential Diagnosis, 2nd Edition, John Patten, Springer 1996.

  • Chapter 1: History Taking & The Physical Exam
  • Chapter 7: Conjugate Eye Movements and Nystagmus

DeMyer’s The Neurologic Examination: A Programmed Text, Sixth Edition, Jose Biller, Gregory Gruener, Paul Brazis, 2011, McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

  • Chapter 14: Clinical and Laboratory Tests to Distinguish Conversion Disorder and Malingering from Organic Disease
  • Chapter 15: A Synopsis of the Neurologic Investigation and a Formulary of Neurodiagnosis

 

812 / 912 – Sensory Systems

The main objective of this module is to review the aspects of sensory information processing in human kind with emphasis on the applicableness of this information in the clinical chiropractic practice. Emphasis will be on the integration of the mesolimbic and substantia nigral dopaminergic activating systems in concert with perception and sensory integration. The major sensory pathways will be discussed specific to their structure and function. Central processing of sensory information will be reviewed in relationship to thalamic and cortical integration. Disorders of the sensorium will be reviewed and methodology introduced to aid in differentiating these disorders from central and peripheral origins discussed. Applications specific to the treatment of sensory lesions will be explored.

Key Concepts

  1. Clinical understanding of the relationship of receptor potentials to the human sensory experience.
  2. Chiropractic importance of the understanding of muscle spindle activation and the effects of the subluxations to the human sensory experience.
  3. Clinical anatomy of the neurological structures involved in primary sensory processing.
  4. Localization of the LLL associated with various abnormalities of the sensory system.
  5. Relationship of the loss of pursuit mechanisms in OPK testing to sensory changes.
  6. Chiropractic treatment consideration for various sensory specific neurological lesions.

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 17: From Nerve Cells to Cognition: The Internal Representations for Space and Action (Kandel)
  • Chapter 21: Sensory Coding (Gardner, Johnson)
  • Chapter 22: The Somatosensory System: Receptors and Central Pathways (Gardner, Johnson)
  • Chapter 23: Touch (Gardner, Johnson)

Nolte’s The Human Brain: An Introduction to its Functional Anatomy 7th Edition,  Todd Vanderah, and Douglas Gould, 2015, elsevier

  • Chapter 13: The Chemical Senses of Taste and Smell
  • Chapter 14: Hearing and Balance: The Eighth Cranial Nerve
  • Chapter 16: The Thalamus and Internal Capsule: Getting to and from the Cerebral Cortex
  • Chapter 17: The Visual System

DeMyer’s The Neurologic Examination: A Programmed Text, Sixth Edition, Jose Biller, Gregory Gruener, Paul Brazis, 2011, McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

  • Chapter 10: Examination of the General Somatosensory System

 

813 / 913 – Pain

The main objective of this module is to review the clinical anatomy and neurophysiology associated with pain perception. Pain generating mechanisms will be reviewed from the receptor to centrally based mechanisms. Central mechanisms for pain inhibition and facilitation will be reviewed with emphasis placed on the clinical syndromes associated with pain production. Methodology specific to chiropractic modalities in the treatment of pain will be reviewed.

Key Concepts

  1. Thorough understanding of the anatomy and neurophysiology of the nociceptive system.
  2. Neurophysiological mechanisms associated with:
    1. Acute pain syndromes
    2. Chronic pain syndromes
    3. Autonomically maintained pain syndromes
  3. Clinical relationship between chiropractic modalities in the treatment and management of pain syndromes
  4. Clinical understanding of the brain based anti-nociceptive mechanisms and their relationship to cortical activity.
    1. Use of eye exercises in the treatment of pain
    2. Use of OPK procedures in the treatment of pain
  5. Chiropractic treatment and management considerations for acute and chronic pain syndromes

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 24: Pain (Basbaum, Jessell)

CLINICAL AUTONOMIC DISORDERS, 3rd Edition, Phillip A Low, Editor; Lippincott & Raven, 2008

  • Chapter 12: Aging and Autonomic Function

Adams and Victor’s Principles of Neurology 10th Edition, Allan Ropper,, Martin Samuels,Joshua Klein, McGraw-Hill Education Medical, 2014

  • Chapter 8: Pain
  • Chapter 11: Pain in the Back, Neck, & Extremities

 

814 / 914 – Head & Face Pain:

The main objective of this module is to review the clinical anatomy and neurophysiology of the peripheral and central pain pathways responsible for cranial pain perception. Emphasis will be placed on the neurological influences of multiple organ system function as it pertains primarily to the production of the most common craniofacial pain syndromes. The most common syndromes involving head pain from migraines to trigeminal neuralgia will be reviewed. Afferent pain pathways from the face will be reviewed in regards to their structure and function. Chiropractic applications specific to cranial pain will be presented.

Key Concepts

  1. Thorough understanding of the anatomy and neurophysiology of the cranial nociceptive system.
  2. Neurophysiological mechanisms associated with:
    1. Migraines
    2. Tension Headaches
    3. SAH Headaches
    4. Hormonal Headaches
    5. Vascular Headaches
    6. Neurophysiological mechanisms associated with:
    7. Trigeminal Neuralgia.
    8. Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia
    9. Geniculate Neuralgia.
  3. Clinical relationship between chiropractic modalities in the treatment and management of the above mentioned pain syndrome.
  4. Clinical understanding of the brain based anti-nociceptive mechanisms and their relationship to cortical activity.
  5. Chiropractic treatment and management considerations.

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 24: The Perception of Pain.

Neurological Differential Diagnosis, 2nd Edition, John Patten, Springer 1996.

  • Chapter 20: Headache
  • Chapter 21: Facial Pain

 

815 / 915 – Motor Systems

The main objective of this module is to review the aspects of motoric integration in human kind with emphasis on the applicableness of this information in the clinical chiropractic practice. Further discussion of the structure and function of the major volitional and nonvolitional motor pathways. The function of the basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord will be discussed in relationship to the human motor system. Chiropractic applications specific to the diagnosis and treatment of both central and peripheral pathology will be covered.

Key Concepts

  1. Clinical relationship between brain function and motor control
  2. Clinical significance of the pathoneurophysiology associated with lesions of the following neurological structure producing disturbances in motoricity:
    1. Cortex
    2. Internal Capsule
    3. Basal Ganglia
    4. Brainstem
    5. Cerebellum
    6. Spinal Cord
    7. Peripheral Nerve
    8. End Organ
  3. Clinical ability to differentiate amongst lesions in the above neurological regions
  4. Clinical relationship of OPK disturbances to motor deficits:
    1. Horizontal deficits
    2. Vertical deficits
    3. Torsional deficits
  5. Demonstration of chiropractic techniques used in the treatment of various lesions of the motor system

Reading List:

Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition, Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel,  Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth; Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill

  • Chapter 16: The Functional Organization of Perception and Movement (Amaral)
  • Chapter 33: The Organization and Planning of Movement (Wolpert, Pearson, Ghez)
  • Chapter 36: Locomotion (Pearson, Gordon)
  • Chapter 37: Voluntary Movement: The Primary Motor Cortex (Kalaska, Rizzolatti)
  • Chapter 38: Voluntary Movement: The Parietal and Premotor Cortex (Rizzolatti, Kalaska)
  • Chapter 43: The Basal Ganglia (Wichmann, DeLong)

Neurological Differential Diagnosis, 2nd Edition, John Patten, Springer 1996.

  • Chapter 12: The Extrapyramidal System and the Cerebellum
  • Chapter 18: Diseases of Muscle & the Muscle End-plate

DeMyer’s The Neurologic Examination: A Programmed Text, Sixth Edition, Jose Biller, Gregory Gruener, Paul Brazis, 2011, McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

  • Chapter 7: Examination of the Somatic Motor System (Excluding Cranial Nerves)

 

816 / 916 – Electrodiagnostics

Review of the general principles of electrodiagnostic testing involving EMG, NCV, BAERS and VEPs. The most common findings associated with these tests will be reviewed in light of various clinical syndromes. The utilization of these modalities in the clinical practice will be explored.

Reading List:

Evoked Potentials in Clinical Medicine, Chiappa, 3rd edition; Lippincott-Raven, 1997

  • Chapters: 1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14.

Principles of Electromyography, Cast Studies 1st Edition; Shin Oh, Williams & Wilkins 1998

  • Chapters: 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13.

Electrodiagnosis in Diseases of Nerve and Muscle: Principles and Practice 4th Edition; Jun Kimura, Oxford University Press, 2013

  • Chapters: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 21, 22, 23

 

817 / 917 – Neurological Imaging

The main objective of this module is to familiarize the participants on reading images produced by various imaging device including: MRI, MRA, fMRI, CT, X-ray, Bone Scan, PET, and SPECT. A detailed presentation of a comprehensive inventory of diagnostic imaging specific to the neurological system will be made. Methodology used in interpretation of testing and practical applications complementary to the neurological examination will further be emphasized. Examples of normal images will be presented followed by pathological specimens to enhance learning.

Key Concepts

  1. Methodology behind the production of various advanced-imaging procedures.
  2. Interpretation of the anatomical relationships of various advanced imaging slides
  3. Interpretation of the clinical significance of various anatomical lesions as depicted by the studies presented.
  4. Deciding on the clinical need for advanced imaging

Reading List:

  • Brown WD. Brain: supratentorial cortical anatomy. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 1998;8(1):21-36. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9449751.
  • Tatu LMD, Moulin TMD, Bogousslavsky JMD, Duvernoy HMD. Arterial territories of the human brain: Cerebral hemispheres. [Article]. Neurology. 1998;50(6):1699-1708.
  • Tatu L, Moulin T, Bogousslavsky J, Duvernoy H. Arterial territories of human brain: brainstem and cerebellum. Neurology. 1996;47(5):1125-1135. doi:10.1212/WNL.47.5.1125.

 

818 / 918 – Advanced Neurological Diagnosis

The main objective of this module is to integrate the current understanding of neurological function in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the human nervous system. Emphasis will be placed on the neurological influences of multiple organ system function as it pertains primarily to the assessment of human neuronal integrity. The interpretation of information obtained from the physical examination will be reviewed as it pertains to one’s ability to discern dysfunction in the human nervous system as well as to provide the examiner with information on the specific application of treatment modalities to improve humanistic function and expression. This concept will be developed as to aid the practitioner in developing thought processes that would embrace the vast integration and complexity of the human nervous system. It will be the end goal of this module that the learner is able to explain the most common scenarios of human functionality/dysfunctionality in terms of a lesion within the nervous system and be able to apply treatment that is in concert with the CIS of the human nervous system.

Key Concepts

  1. Understanding the significance of diagnosing the Longitudinal Level of the Lesion (LLL) as it relates to the treatment of neurological disease.
  2. Physical exam procedures utilized in the diagnosis of the LLL.
  3. Treatment and management considerations of the LLL.
  4. Correlation between VOR and OPK and the neurological exam.

Reading List:

DeJong’s The Neurologic Examination, 7th Edition, William W. Campbell,  Wolters Kluwer 2012

DeMyer’s The Neurologic Examination: A Programmed Text, Sixth Edition, Jose Biller, Gregory Gruener, Paul Brazis, 2011, McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

  • Chapter 6: Examination of the Motor Cranial Nerves V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII
  • Chapter 9. Examination of the Special Senses

 

819 / 919 – Movement Disorders

The main objective of this module is to present the breadth and depth of information pertaining to the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with movement disorders in such a way as to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of various movement disorders by the practicing chiropractic neurologist. Emphasis will be placed on the application of chiropractic modalities in the treatment of various movement disorders ranging from Parkinson’s to focal dystonia

Key Concepts

  1. Thorough understanding of neurophysiology of the Basal Ganglia, Motor Cortex, Supplemental Motor Cortex, Thalamus and the Cerebellum as it relates to the control of movement
  2. Understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms associated with lesions of the Basal Ganglia, Motor Cortex, Supplemental Motor Cortex, Thalamus and the Cerebellum and their relationship to the development of various movement disorders.
  3. Understanding of the Pathophysiology of the following movement disorders:
    1. Parkinson’s Disease
      1. Typical
      2. Atypical
    2. Choreoathetosis
    3. Hemiballism
    4. Dystonia
      1. Focal
      2. Multi-Focal
      3. DYT-1 Inherited
      4. Oral-Mandibular
    5. Benign Essential Tremor
  4. Neurological examination techniques for used in the diagnosis and treatment of various movement disorders.

 

Reading List:

  • Augood SJ, Penney JB, Friberg IK, et al. Expression of the early onset torsion dystonia gene (DYT1) in human brain. Ann Neurol. 1998;43(5):669-673. doi:10.1002/ana.410430518.
  • Berardelli A. The pathophysiology of primary dystonia. Brain. 1998;121(7):1195-1212. doi:10.1093/brain/121.7.1195.
  • Bressman SB, de Leon D, Brin MF, et al. Idiopathic dystonia among Ashkenazi Jews: evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance. Ann Neurol. 1989;26(5):612-620. doi:10.1002/ana.410260505.
  • Bressman SB, de Leon D, Kramer PL, et al. Dystonia in Ashkenazi Jews: clinical characterization of a founder mutation [published erratum appears in Ann Neurol 1995 Jan;37(1):140]. Ann Neurol. 1994;36(5):771-777.
  • Bressman SB, de Leon D, Raymond D, et al. Secondary dystonia and the DYTI gene. Neurology. 1997;48(6):1571-1577. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9191768.
  • Liepert J, Bauder H, Wolfgang HR, Miltner WH, Taub E, Weiller C. Treatment-induced cortical reorganization after stroke in humans. Stroke. 2000;31(6):1210-1216. doi:10.1161/01.STR.31.6.1210.
  • Taub E, Uswatte G, Pidikiti R. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: A New Family of Techniques with Broad Application to Physical Rehabilitation–A Clinical Review. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1999;36(n):1-21. papers2://publication/uuid/7D63A0A5-8954-485D-9544-1DDE4A4B27AF.
  • van der Lee JH, Wagenaar RC, Lankhorst GJ, Vogelaar TW, Deville WL, Bouter LM. Forced Use of the Upper Extremity in Chronic Stroke Patients : Results From a Single-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial. Stroke. 1999;30(11):2369-2375. doi:10.1161/01.STR.30.11.2369.
  • Liepert J, Bauder H, Wolfgang HR, Miltner WH, Taub E, Weiller C. Treatment-induced cortical reorganization after stroke in humans. Stroke. 2000;31(6):1210-1216. doi:10.1161/01.STR.31.6.1210
  • Pallidal Surgery for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders; J. Krauss, R. Grossman, J. Jankovic; Lippincott-Raven, 1998
  • J.H. van der Lee, R.C. Wagenaar, G.J. Lankhorst. Forced use of the hemiplegic upper extremity to improve abilities in stroke patients. Paper presented at the 11th European Conference of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Goteborg, Sweden; 1999.
  • Wolfgang Miltner and Heike Bauder, University of Jena–readiness potential (EEG);
  • Thomas Elbert, University of Konstanz–magnetoencephalography (MEG) and EEG.

820 / 920 – Cardiac Function

The main objective of this module is to review the neurological controlling influences of the cardiovascular system as relates to the brain hemispheric model of integration. Emphasis will be placed on the use of common chiropractic modalities as a vehicle to evoke change in the cardiovascular system based on our current day understanding of cardiovascular neurological integration. Emphasis will also be placed on the electrical properties of the heart at a breadth and depth that will allow the participating practitioner to properly evaluate a standard 12 lead EKG to determine any underlying cardiac pathology as well as to use the EKG as a tool to direct and monitor the outcomes of our treatments of those individuals with compromised cardiovascular states.

Key Concepts

  1. Reading standard 12 lead EKG and proficiency in determining the presence of:
    1. Left & Right Axis deviation
    2. Right or Left atrial hypertrophy
    3. Right or left ventricular hypertrophy
    4. Conduction blocks
    5. S-T Elevation
  2. Relationship of brain activity to:
    1. Changes in the P-R interval
    2. Changes in ST elevation.
  3. Proper cardiac examination technique
  4. Chiropractic applications in treatment of:
    1. Right or Left atrial hypertrophy
    2. Right or left ventricular hypertrophy
    3. Myocardial infarct
    4. Conduction blocks
    5. S-T Elevation

Reading List:

Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination, 8th Edition, Jane W. Ball, Joyce E. Dains, John A. Flynn, Barry S. Solomon, Rosalyn W. Stewart, 2015

  • Chapter 10 – Rhythmic Excitation of the Heart
  • 11. The Normal Electrocardiogram
  • 18. Nervous Regulation of the Circulation and Rapid Control of Arterial Pressure
  • 42. Regulation of Respiration

Adams and Victor’s Principles of Neurology 10th Edition, Allan Ropper,, Martin Samuels,Joshua Klein, McGraw-Hill Education Medical, 2014

  • Chapter 27: The Hypothalamus and Neuroendocrine Disorders

 

821 / 921 – Gut & Sexual/Reproductive Function

The main objective of this module to review the clinical application of the anatomy and physiology of the autonomic nervous system pertaining specifically to respiratory and gut integration. Emphasis will be placed on examining various pathologies in these systems as they relate to the hemispheric model of brain function. Reviewing, performing and interpreting multiple autonomic stress tests and discussing the findings in relationship to hemisphericity and patient specific scenarios will also emphasize clinical applications.

Key Concepts

  1. Relationship between neurological integration of gut and the sexual/reproductive system in the development of various disease processes.
  2. Relationship between neurological integration of the respiratory system in the development of various respiratory disease processes.
  3. Cortical hemisphericity and its relationship to the development of disease processes affecting the respiratory, digestive and sexual systems.
  4. Chiropractic neurological techniques utilized in the treatment of the disorders affecting the respiratory, digestive and sexual systems.

Reading List:

Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 13th Edition, John E. Hall, 2016

  • Chapter 32: Diuretics, Kidney Diseases
  • Chapter 63: General Principles of Gastrointestinal Function – Motility, Nervous Control, and Blood Circulation
  • Chapter 74: Body Temperature Regulation and Fever
  • Chapter 81: Reproductive and Hormonal Functions of the Male (and Function of the Pineal Gland)
  • Chapter 82: Female Physiology Before Pregnancy and Female Hormones

Aging of the Autonomic Nervous System, F. Amenta CRC Press 1993

  • Chapter 12: The Abdomen                                                                                                                                                      

Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination, 8th Edition, Jane W. Ball, Joyce E. Dains, John A. Flynn, Barry S. Solomon, Rosalyn W. Stewart, 2015

  • Chapter 17: Abdomen

 

Innervation of The Gut: Pathophysiological Implications, Tache et. al, CRC Press 1993

 

822 / 922 – Neurological Rehabilitation

The main objective of this module is to review the aspects of muscle physiology as it pertains to neuromuscular rehabilitation. Emphasis will be placed on the integration from other related systems of the cerebellum as well as the cortex. Basic concepts of neuromuscular rehabilitation will be introduced and incorporated into the brain hemispheric model of function. Ocular rehabilitative techniques will be emphasized throughout the weekend’s discussion.

Key Concepts

  1. Neurological rehabilitation of the neuromuscular system
  2. Neurological rehabilitation techniques specific to:
    1. Peripheral Nerve Lesions
    2. Spinal Cord Lesions
    3. Lesions of the Cerebellum and Labyrinthine System
    4. Lesions of the basal ganglia
    5. Lesions of the cortex
  3. Ocular rehabilitative techniques
    1. Saccadic movement therapy
    2. Pursuit movement therapy
    3. Vestibular ocular therapy
    4. OPK therapy
  4. Advanced chiropractic methods in the treatment of neurological disease

 

Reading List:

  • Rehabilitative Technique for the Chiropractic Neurologist: Dr. Ted Carrick: Logan Tape Series
  • Behavioral Neurology 2nd Edition, Howard S. Kirshner, 2002, Elsevier

 

823 / 923 – Neurological Review

This program was specifically developed to address the needs of those individuals preparing to sit for the American Chiropractic Neurology Board diplomate exam in neurology. However the program also addresses the needs of the following learners:

 

  • The Debutant Learner:

 

The debutant learner and or individual interested in beginning their studies in chiropractic neurology will find this program very appealing. This program will provide a complete overview of the material that is covered in more detail in the diplomate program. This is a tremendous opportunity for an individual interested in chiropractic neurology as this program will provide the participant with a high degree of insight as to the general direction of the diplomate program as well, as highlighting some of the exciting developments that have occurred over the past few years.

 

  • The Diplomat In Neurology:

 

For those individual who have already obtained diplomate status this program is structured in such away as to provide the advance learner with new applications and new diagnostic protocols that have been developed in the past year. This program will provide the latest information pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of hemisphericity. The latest developments in the use of OPK and the integration of the labyrinthine system on ocular function will be spotlighted. This program will with no doubt expose even the most advanced diplomat to new applicable information.

 

824 / 924 – Chiropractic Adjusting Techniques for Chiropractors

The main objective of this module is to introduce and develop the neurological mechanism involved in osseous manipulative reductive techniques. Based on this information, palpatory assessment techniques will be introduced and demonstrated that are congruent with our current understanding of neurological integration of spinal mechanics. Proper manipulative reductive techniques will be introduced based on sound biomechanical as well as neurological principles. Segmental lesions will be correlated with suprasegmental lesions based on our current understanding of hemispheric receptor based integration.

Key Concepts

  1. The concept of Brain Hemisphericity and how to diagnose it.
  2. The neurological effects of the chiropractic adjustment based on today’s scientific knowledge.
  3. New advanced and specific adjusting techniques that are used to maximize the innate genetic expression.
  4. The use and application of “Core Stabilization” techniques.
  5. How to apply these adjustive techniques and rehabilitative exercises to the treatment some of the most common conditions that present to the chiropractic office. Some of the clinical entities to be discussed are:
    1. Nerve entrapment syndromes:
      1. Carpal Tunnel
      2. TOS
      3. Piriformis Syndromes
      4. Tarsal Tunnel Syndromes
    2. Spinal instability leading to low back and neck pain.
    3. Impingement syndromes, lateral epicondylitis and various others.

Reading List:

  • Advanced Neurological Technique Video Series: Dr. Ted Carrick, Carrick Institute:

 

825 / 925 – Clinical Neurology for the Practicing Chiropractor

This program focusses on some practical and effective ways of applying Neurology for the practicing Chiropractor.

 

  • No Reading List

 

Scroll to Top