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15 Neurology Hours 

New Year - New Program Updates! Pain Reset 2.0 & Functional Neurology Essentials

Neurochemistry & Nutrition Board Review

Neurochemistry Board Review Topics

  • The 4 Neurochemical Priorities (never get lost!)
  • Blood Tests and Codes for this Module
    • CBC
    • Phosphorus
    • Comp Metabolic Panel
    • Magnesium
    • Hemoglobin A1c
    • LDH
    • GGT
  • How to Work Up a Real Patient
  • Every Case Study details the patient’s presentation, work up, treatment plan and follow up.
  • Case Study – 17 year old female with headaches, fatigue, neck/back pain
  • What Does a Brain Do?
    • Global view of Brain function and purpose
    • A primer on the  evolutionary development of brain structure and function
  • Structural Components of the CNS – Brain macrostructure 
  • Concepts of Neuron Structure & Function
    • How Neurons Work – Thresholds and Potentials
    • Neurotransmission, Transmitters and Receptors
      • Dopamine
      • GABA
      • Serotonin
      • Acetylcholine
    • NMDA Receptors, Glutamate and Long-Term Potentiation
    • Transneuronal Degeneration and Diaschisis
    • The DARK Side of NMDA Receptors (creepy!)
      • Excitotoxicity – what promotes it and what inhibits it
    • Synaptic Integration
  • Ions: sodium, potassium, calcium 
  • Glial Cells
    • Macroglia
      • Focus on Astrocytes
      • Clinical Point on Aquaporins
      • Oligodendrocytes and Schwann Cells
    • Microglia
      • Normal role and pathophysiological role
  • Blood-Brain Barrier
    • Neurovascular unit aka Gliovascular Unit
    • What crosses and what doesn’t
  • Membranes and Lipids
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    • When is ALS not ALS?
    • A reasonable evidence-based approach to ALS
  • Energy Metabolism in the Brain -glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation
  • Stroke
    • What happens to energy production during and after stroke?
    • Stroke-induced inflammation
    • The Stroke-Migraine Continuum
  • Epilepsy
    • Pathophysiology
    • Nutritional and Metabolic Factors to consider in Epilepsy
    • The Ketogenic Diet for Seizures
    • How to work up, manage and treat a patient with Seizures.
  • Understanding Blood Chemistry – For each test:
    • What physiology is actually being tested?
    • What makes it high?
    • What makes it low?
    • What are the lab reference ranges?
    • What is the functional/optimal ranges?
      • Comp. Metabolic 14 PLUS
        • Glucose
        • Calcium
        • Protein
        • Albumin
        • Globulin
        • Sodium
        • Potassium
        • Chloride
        • Carbon Dioxide
        • Anion Gap
        • BUN
        • Creatinine
        • eGFR
        • Phosphorus
        • Alkaline Phosphatase
        • ALT
        • AST
        • GGT
        • Bilirubin
    • Hemoglobin A1c
    • Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • Special Section on Magnesium
    • Normal roles in physiology
    • Testing
      • What makes it high?
      • What makes it low?
    • Magnesium in Migraine
    • Magnesium in Stroke
    • Magnesium in Chronic Pain
  • Pattern Analysis of Blood Test Results
  • Magnesium and Depression
  • Excitotoxicity and Glutamate
  • How to handle a patient with seizures
  • Key points about ALS
  • Blood Tests and Codes
    • CBC / Differential with Platelet Count 
    • Iron
    • IBC
    • Serum Ferritin
    • Serum Methylmalonic Acid
    • Homocysteine
    • Serum Vitamin B12
    • Serum Folic Acid
    • Hereditary Hemochromatosis, DNA Analysis
    • cardiac CRP (or High sensitivity CRP) 
    • H. Pylori Urea Breath Test
    • Helicobacter pylori Antibodies, IgA, IgG, IgM
    • Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen
    • Intrinsic Factor Antibodies 
    • Gastric Parietal Cell Antibodies 
  • Big Picture of the  Neurochemical Priorities
    • #2 – Cellular Energy: RBCs, Nutrients, MItochondria
    • #3 – Cellular Energy: HPA Axis and Glucose Handling
  • Lab Reference Ranges vs. Functional/Optimal Ranges
    • What’s the difference? 
  • Energy Production in the Body
    • Citric Acid Cycle and Nutrient Co-factors
  • Physiology of Red Blood Cells
  • Understanding Blood Chemistry 
  • RBC
  • Hemoglobin
  • Hematocrit
  • MCV
  • MCH
  • MCHC
  • RDW
  • Platelet count
  • Reticulocyte count
  • CBC Red Blood Cell markers interpretation 
    • Anemia Classifications
  • Iron Physiology
  • Iron Testing
    • TIBC
    • UIBC
    • Serum
    • Transferrin Saturation
    • Ferritin
  • Iron deficiencies
    • Physical signs and symptoms
    • Iron deficiency and the brain
    • Causes of iron deficiency
  • Work up for Iron deficiency and Iron deficiency anemia
  • Treatment of Iron Deficiency and Iron deficiency anemia
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Iron Supplementation
    • How much, what kind and when to take it
  • B12 Physiology
    • Absorption
  • B12 Testing
    • the problem with the serum B12
    • Methyl Malonic Acid
  • Metabolic B12 Deficiency
  • Causes of B12 Deficiency
  • What causes High levels of B12?
  • Signs, Symptoms and Effects of Low B12
  • B12 Lab testing interpretation
  • B12 Supplementation
    • What kinds, how much and when 
  • Folate Physiology
  • Testing for Folate status
    • Serum Folate
  • Effects of low folate
  • Causes of low folate
  • Folate supplementation
    • how much, what kind of and when to take it
  • Homocysteine and Remethylation
    • Causes of high homocysteine
    • MTHFR
    • Homocysteine and Depression, Bipolar, Schizophrenia, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Testing for homocysteine
    • Treatment of high homocysteine
  • Interpreting patterns of RBC markers, Iron, B12, MMA, Folate and Homocysteine
  • Effects of Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • RBC Patterns on blood chemistry
  • Anemias—there’s lots of them
  • Treating underlying causes of an anemia
  • Glucose Regulation
  • Hormones 101
  • HPA Axis and Adrenal Function
  • Adrenal Glands – Anatomy and Physiology
    • Pregnenolone
    • DHEA
    • Cortisol
  • Glucose Regulation – Insulin, HPA and the Liver
  • Assessing Adrenal Function (the real way)
    • Dynamic Tests
    • Serum DHEA-s
    • Cortisol testing
      • Salivary
      • Urinary
  • Adrenal Insufficiency
    • Addison’ Disease
    • TBI and HPA/Adrenal Function
  • Adrenal Fatigue – does it exist?
  • Overtraining Syndrome – it’s not just for athletes
  • Cushing’s Disease
  • HPA/Adrenal Treatment
    • Lifestyle
    • Supplementation
      • Adaptogens and how to use them
      • And more…
    • Exercise
    • Stress Reduction
  • Peripheral Glucose Regulation
    • C-peptide and insulin
  • Insulin Resistance
    • Causes of insulin resistance
    • Effects of insulin resistance in the brain
  • Hypoinsulinemia
  • Type 2 Diabetes
    • pathophysiology
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Reactive Hypoglycemia
  • Hypoglucocytosis 
  • Glucose Regulation and Autoimmunity
    • Cross Reaaction
  • Type 1 Diabetes
    • Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of the Adult
    • Antibody testing
  • Lab Diagnosis of hyperglycemia
  • Lab Diagnosis of hypoglycemia
  • Glucose Regulation Treatment
    • Therapeutic Targets – what are you shooting for?
  • Diet for hyperglycemia modulation
    • Therapeutic Fasting – how to do ti
  • Supplementation for Glucose Regulation
    • What to use, how much and when to take it
  • Gastrointestinal Physiology
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
    • Elimination
    • How to use GI symptoms to triangulate the location of the problem
    • Intestinal Barrier- Anatomy and Function
      • Tight Junctions, Zonulin, Occludin
    • Gut Permeability
    • Hyper-leaky gut
  • SIBO
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Support strategies for integrity of the gut barrier
  • Liver physiology
    • Normal Biotransformation
    • Xenobiotics
    • Toxicants
  • How to improve liver function
  • Blood tests for assessing liver function
  • Gluten
    • What is it?
    • What does it do?
  • Celiac Disease
    • Pathogenesis
    • Clinical Features and Manifestations
    • Diagnosis
  • Non-Celiac Gluten/Wheat Sensitivity
  • Testing for Celiac and NCGWS
    • Deep dive into wheat proteome and related markers
  • Gluten-related disorders
  • FODMAPS
    • Low FODMAPS Diet
  • The Anti-Inflammatory Repair Diet
    • What’s allowed, what’s not allowed and why
  • Testing for Food Sensitivities
    • What does it really mean?
    • What are you really testing?
  • Schematic view of the Immune System
    • Barriers
    • Acute Phase Response
    • Innate Immune System
    • Adaptive Immune System: T cells, B cells and more
    • Cytokines
    • Immunoglobulins, Antibodies and Isotypes
  • How the Immune System Works
  • Challenges for the Immune System: Discrimination, Flexibility, Managing Infection, Memory
  • Antibody Generation, T Cell Receptors
  • Autoimmunity
  • Lab testing: WBC and Differential, C-Reactive Protein/hs CRP, Vitamin D
  • Microbiome/Microbiota
    • Microbiota-Gut-Brain Concepts
    • Microbiota-Gut-Brain-Immune Axis
    • Short chain fatty acids and their clinical applications
    • Dendritic Cells
    • Induction of Treg cells
    • Effects of Antibiotics
    • Ectopic Colonization
  • Intestinal Permeability Revisited: Tight Junctions
  • Gut Barrier and Blood-Brain Barrier
  • Feeding Microbiota and Protecting the Barrier
  • Autoimmunity…the Deep Dive
    • Pre-requisites
    • Clinical Presentations
  • Food Antigens and the Immune System
    • Oral Tolerance
    • Cross-reactivity
    • Food Sensitivity Testing: the good news and bad news, and the really bad news
  • Testing for clinically significant autoimmunity
    • Clinical Immune System Challenge: the rules and how to interpret
    • Predictive Antibody testing
      • Survey of common antibody tests and what they mean clinically
  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Celiac Disease
  • Regulating the Immune System with Diet, Exercise and Supplementation
  • The Anti-inflammatory Diet
  • Anti-inflammatory/Immune Regulatory Supplementation
  • Sleep
    • Normal physiology including stages and Melatonin
    • Abnormal sleep patterns
    • Sleep hygiene
    • Sleep Scenarios
  • Acute Pain Relief
  • Pain—in general and in specific clinical conditions
    • The NLRP3 Inflammasome
    • Autoimmunity and Pain
  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
  • Fibromyalgia – short and sweet
  • Peripheral Neuropathy 
  • Vestibulo-Cochear System and Disorders
  • Labyrinthine physiology including the Blood-Labyrinth Barrier
  • Inner Ear Immune System
  • Vertigo
  • How does the immune system affect the Vestibulocochlear System
  • Vertigo in Autoimmune Disorders
  • BPPV: causes and treatments 
  • Vitamin D and BPPV
  • Thyroid, BPPV and recurring BPPV
  • Recurrent BPPV Treatment
  • Meniere’s Disease
    • Meniere’s and Autoimmunity
    • Gluten and Meniere’s 
    • Meniere’s Disease Treatment
  • Tinnitus: Definition, sources and clinical applications
  • Vestibular Migraine
  • Otolithic Vertigo 
  • Mesencephalic Dizziness
  • The Gut and Psychiatry
  • Major Depression Disorder: 
  • inflammation homocysteine, oxidative stress, Vitamin D, Thyroid autoimmunity, SAMe, Folate, B12, Tryptophan, probiotics, HPA, micronutrients, NAC
  • Bipolar Disorder:
  • Inflammation, thyroid autoimmunity, homocysteine, oxidative stress
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • Autoimmunity
  • Schizophrenia
  • homocysteine, EBV, Autoimmunity, gluten-free diet, copper, lithium, 
  • Autophagy – how to induce it
  • Mitophagy – how to induce it
  • Neuroinflammation for homeostasis
  • Neuroinflammation in CNS diseases: Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, MS, Depression, Sleep Disorders
  • Necrosis vs. apoptosis – cell death and survival
  • Neurodegeneration: the role of the immune system, glucose, metals, mitochondria, microbiome, astrocytes, microglia, oral health, tryptophan/kynurenine, sex hormones, gluten, vitamins, NRF2
  • A short course on TBI
  • Definitions
  • Clinical presentation
  • Pathophysiology
  • Downstream effects
  • Diagnostic workup for a TBI a patient 
  • How to help a patient with TBI with diet, exercise, supplementation
  • The clinical expressions of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration
  • Sleep and Cognitive decline
  • Parkinson’s Disease: brain first type , body first type
  • Risk factors for Parkinson’s: Diet, Diabetes, Influenza, Statins, Air pollution
  • Parkinson’s Pathophysiology: alpha-synuclein, Autophagy, Tau, glutathione, Gut microbiome, immune system and inflammation, Kynurenine pathway, autoimmunity, mitochondria
  • Medical Management of Parkinson’s
  • Diet: fasting and more
  • Exercise
  • Supplementation
  • Dementia: SCD, MCI, Alzheimer’s 
  • Dementia pathophysiology 
  • Dementia evaluation and diagnosis
    • How to use the MOCA and SAGE 
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Pathological features of Alzheimer’s
  • Pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s 
    • Genetics
    • APOE & Lipids
    • BDNF
    • Mitochondria and ROS
    • Autophagy and mTOR
    • Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis
    • Tau
    • Infections
    • Diabetes and Insulin Resistance
    • Sleep
    • Immune System, Inflammation and Neuroinflammation
    • Autoimmunity
    • Porphyromonas Gingivitis
    • The gut and microbiome
  • Alzheimer’s Risk Factors
    • Depression
    • Thyroid function
    • Vitamin D
    • Autoimmune Diseases
    • Coffee and Tea Consumption
    • Autonomic function
    • Physical activity
    • BMI
    • Vaccinations
  • Alzheimer’s and COVID-19
  • Medical management of Alzheimer’s 
  • Frontotemporal Dementia cliff notes
  • ALS review
  • Strategies for Neurodegeneration
    • Diet, fasting and ketones
    • Exercise
    • Specific Supplementation – so much to talk about here
  • Diet interventions for Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration
  • Neuroprotective Strategies
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